Tuesday, February 25, 2020


THE AMERICAN AND BITISH RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE EGYPTION PRESDINT GAMAL ABDEL NASSE 1954-1970 - Dissertation Example Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996. Egypt is a key partner in the search for peace in the Middle East and resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Sadat's groundbreaking trip to Israel in 1977, the 1978 Camp David Accords, and the 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty represented a fundamental shift in the politics of the region--from a strategy of confrontation to one of peace as a strategic choice. Egypt was subsequently ostracized by other Arab states and ejected from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989. Egypt played an important role in the negotiations leading to the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991, which, under U.S. and Russian sponsorship, brought together all parties in the region to discuss Middle East peace. This support has continued to the present, with President Mubarak often intervening personally to promote peace negotiations. In 1996, he hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh "Summit of the Peacemakers" attended by President Bill Clinton and other world leaders. In 2000, he hosted two summits at Sharm El-Sheikh and one at Taba in an effort to resume the Camp David negotiations suspended in July of 2000, and in June 2003, Mubarak hosted President George W. Bush for another summit on the Middle East peace process. Throughout mid-2004, Egypt worked closely with Israel and the Palestinian Authority to facilitate stability following Israel's withdrawal from Gaza, which occurred in August and September of 2005. Prior to this Egypt and Israel reached an agreement that allowed Egypt to deploy additional forces along the Philadelphi Corridor in an attempt to control the border and prevent the smuggling of weapons. Egypt played a key role during the 1990-91 Gulf crisis. President Mubarak helped assemble the international coalition and deployed 35,000 Egyptian troops against Iraq to liberate Kuwait. The Egyptian contingent was the third-largest in the coalition forces, after the U.S. and U.K. In the aftermath of the Gulf war, Egypt signed the Damascus declaration with Syria and the Gulf states to strengthen Gulf security. Egypt continues to contribute regularly to UN peacekeeping missions, most recently in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. In August 2004, Egypt was actively engaged in seeking a solution to the crisis in the Darfur region of Sudan, including the dispatch of military monitors. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, Egypt, which has itself been the target of terrorist attacks, has been a key supporter of U.S. efforts against terrorists and terrorist organizations such as Osama bin Ladin and al-Qaeda, and actively supported the Iraqi Governing Council, as well as the subsequent government of Prime Minister Allawi. In July 2005, terrorists attacked the Egyptian city of Sharm El Sheikh. In the same month, Egypt's envoy to Iraq was assassinated. U.S.-EGYPTIAN RELATIONS The United States and Egypt enjoy a str ong and friendly relationship based on shared mutual interest in Middle East peace and stability, revitalizing the Egyptian economy and strengthening trade relations, and promoting regional security. Over the years, Egypt and the United States have worked together assiduously to expand Middle East peace negotiations, hosting talks, negotiations, and the Middle

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Employees Performance & Assessment system used in your organization Assignment

Employees Performance & Assessment system used in your organization - Assignment Example This has thus forced organizations to ensure proper training and support for those conducting the assessment, and assessing the risk possibilities to reduce legal liabilities. A job performance evaluation system is only considered effective if it can clearly show employees responsibilities, motivate them, show their contribution and give information that can be useful in making personnel decisions. This essay will evaluate the forced distribution system of performance evaluation, its advantages, disadvantages and ways of improving the system. In a forced distribution evaluation system the managers are expected to distribute ratings for the evaluated employees, into a pre-specified performance distribution ranking as described in Concise Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management by Cooper & Argyris. Meisler defined forced distribution performance evaluation as; It's a workforce-management tool based on the premise that in order to develop and thrive, a corporation must identify its best an d worst performers, then nurture the former and rehabilitate and/or discard the latter. It's an elixir that in these slow-growth times has proved irresistible to scores of desperate corporate chieftains - but indigestible to a good many employees (44-49). Just like the name suggest this system forces the managers to ensure that the performance evaluation reflects the true performance of each member within the organization. This system aims to improve overall productivity within the organization. Most organizations have developed their own criteria of ranking, which functions by developing the criteria and employees and ranked according to it. The performance criteria can either be in terms of goals or expected behavior expected of the employees. Microsoft organization rates its employees using a unique scale. Their 5 point scale ensures that employees also get a ranking for being either the most valuable or the least valuable in terms of performance. Through lifeboat discussions man agers will decide on the rankings by choosing the employees that they consider as the most valuable (Abelson,1). This form of ranking allows for determination of the least performing employee, because of this some organizations use the same system as a means of determining which employees are to be laid off. This ranking that allows for firing of workers has led the forced distribution system to be termed as ‘rank and yank’ system (Osborne & McCann, 6- 9). This system though employed by some organizations has both positive and negative features. It is imperative when considering an evaluating system to use in an organization to look at both of these features. This enables an organization to decide on which best fits the organization and will ensure that the employees feel secure in the workplace and promotes effectiveness and productivity. One of the advantages of fixed distribution performance evaluation system is that is that the use of this type of system can help to ensure that common errors that occur during performance evaluation are eliminated. These errors include; poor rating of the employees, or leniency errors whereby the employees are rated questionably well. The latter is the most common, and it is found in most cases that an employee is